The Challenge of Modern Terrorism

Myanmar and the underlying cause of terrorism

In Myanmar, the rise of the movement called 969 has emerged. Is this a terrorist organization or merely the rise of nationalism? What strategies could be implemented nationally and internationally to deal with civil unrest and prevent rising hatred and distrust?

Myanmar has had a history plagued with violence, censorship and corruption. The rise of the Buddhist nationalist group the 969 movement has only added to recent civil unrest. The group has been condemned by some as a Buddhist terrorist organisation for inciting violence and opposing Islam (Beech, 2013, July 1). However, it has not been listed on any government websites as one. This brings us to the question, what classifies as non-state terrorism. Is it merely the presence of violence, intimidation and religion? Or is there more?

The essay will address this topic by identifying and outlining what terrorism is, and what the characteristics of a terrorist organisation are. Furthermore, the history and motives of the 969 movement will be explored. In order to identify if it meets the criteria to be considered a terrorist organisation. I will further go on to discuss possible strategies that could be implemented both nationally and internationally to deal with radicalisation and rising hatred and distrust within communities. To provide the required insight needed to undertake this task, I have drawn on frameworks from Alex Schmid‘s four “arenas of discourse” (Weinberg, Pedahzur, Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004, p.79) on terrorism to understand its complexity.  Continue reading The Challenge of Modern Terrorism

Apologising for the past

A discourse analysis on Australia’s national apology for forced adoption


The purpose of the essay is to analyse the concept of collective apologies in comparison to standard apology formulas. To do this, the text I have chosen is a speech by the Hon PM Julia Gillard ‘National apology for forced adoption’ (21 March 2013). I have chosen this particular speech as it is the latest political collective apology in Australia and has not been analysed to such an extent as previous collective apologies. Such as President Bill Clinton’s (1997) Tuskegee Syphilis experiment apology and Prime Minister Kevin Rudd (2008) Stolen Generations apology (Edwards, 2010, p. 61).

Continue reading Apologising for the past